Computers are completely useless with no value at all without the programs, applications and websites available. Developing a program is a process that goes through various stages including planning, designing followed by cycles of coding and testing then distribution to users.
Since computers were invented, several hundreds of programming languages were developed. Some of these languages are active while others are not used anymore. Programming languages are classified into low and high level languages.
Low level languages are languages which use instructions close to that used by the hardware with little or no abstraction. They are commonly called machine code or assembly language. The lowest level language is the binary language which is coded as 0 or 1 only which is almost never used now.
On the other hand, high level languages are programming languages that use strong abstraction which refers in computer science to the removal of physical, spatial, or temporal details to focus on the more important tasks to be fulfilled. Abstraction aims at making programming easier and closer to natural languages used by humans.
The first high level language to be developed was called Plankalkül; however, it was not used on large scale because of World War II. The first widely used programming language is Fortran which was developed as an independent project founded by IBM. The most commonly used high level languages include Jave, Python and C languages.
Choosing the correct programming language to learn depends on the objective and the field of application. In most cases, you may use any programming language to develop any designed application or program. However, choosing the wrong language will significantly increase the difficulty of the task. This in turn will increase the effort, time and cost of the programming process. You may find below the most common programming languages used today and their features.
Jave is currently the most commonly used programming language. It was developed by Sun Microsystems in 1995 to offer a language that has as few dependencies as possible. The main advantage of using this language is called WORA which is the abbreviation for Write Once Run Anywhere. This refers to the portability of the programs which means that a program can be developed on one platform as Windows and then it can be used on different platforms as iOS or android operating systems.
There are currently 13 major versions of Java, the latest is called Java 12 which was released in 2019. Java is an object oriented language whose syntax is largely influenced by C++ language. The standard library used for the development of Java applications is called the Java Class Library which is controlled by the Java Community Process program.
Sun Microsystems also developed the Javadoc which is a comprehensive documentation for Java developers. Executing compiled programs require the presence of a software platform as the Java Platform provided by Oracle and the Android SDK for android applications.
Python is a high level programming language that is rapidly gaining more popularity in the recent years. Its first release appeared in 1990. It was developed and designed by Guido van Rossum who remained as a sole Python lead developer till 2018 when he announced stepping down from this position. It was developed as a successor to ABC programming language.
There are several interpreters available for using Python on different platforms. There is also reference implementation called Cpython which is maintained as an open source library. The resources used for the development of the programming language and Cpython is maintained by a non-profit organization under the name of Python Software Foundation. The language core philosophy is summarized in a document called the Zen of Python.
One of the most important advantages of Python is its large standard library which offers tools suitable for many tasks. As an open source, Python has interesting development process which is known as the Python Enhancement Proposal process which starts by proposing new features, collecting feedback from the community and the decision of the steering council.
C++ is a general purpose programming language that is considered an extension to the C programming language. It was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup. The language currently provides facilities for low-memory manipulation. The language was released for the first time in 1985.
Standard C++ language consists of two parts including the core language and the standard library. A common criticism to C++ language is the complexity of the language that limits its use and limits the use of some of its features because the complexity of the resulting code is too high.
Ruby is another general purpose high level programming language which was developed in Japan. There are 10 versions released of this programming language with another version expected to be released in the next year. The aim of developing Ruby was to provide a programming language that improves the productivity of programmers while having fun. Accordingly, the developer focused on developing a user-friendly interface.